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ǧOxĽc☋
forumadmin 2017-08-22 23:08:53 ÔĶÁ£º66´Î ÆÀÂÛ£º0
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ǧOxĽc☋



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O xһ \һ xһ԰lһȺװV_ӡ ΨΨZZСȡ֮ 鱰ɟo\ɿϡ OxĸclKЇǰK“ȇ̽ӑOwƵ͑׃^c☋D͵Ŀ· ЇDͲHһo} Ҳy} wYף ٘O耳ЇԼС ҂ԓ@ġ


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ʮoһɘOֻĘOoһЩңõ얹̣һЩңxǷOһϿɳۇK1917꽨˵һOҡK“1929꽛ʒl֮ᣬ˹׺ͬrښW޴ꑺձٴΰ玧YYᣬK“ƻӰµЖ|WŰ͡ЇrȇMɵġxꇠIὨ˘Owƣ@Щҵ񎧁؞y1966ЇlġĸǘOwŰ֮һǰ낀o춽߳@NwƵЇԣбҪ̽ӑOxĽYc☋C


Oxvʷһ̵θԭʼĿԇҙCԡ ڴ֮ǰκՓ߀njơֻnj]춹О飬Ox߀Ҫ˼һyֻΡСO΄tҪΡġֹ|ķ֙ϵcP֮gķ֙࣬ę͹ܿОę֮gһ‘xϵġx֮O΄tҪ߳һЙֽ磬һжƿڇeȻ@^ġҡKHwYI桸һˡ


mȻҲ̺ͬһ磬ǘOxΣhΡ˹mȂyµңڽ̵ĉLö࣬ΙδȫӹһȼɭwϵϽ̕һNMʽڽ̇ҵĽͽāǹoԮǿڴͬ邃ıoҺyһĂ˽yΡȻOʽĘO΅sҪ{ՄһNڽ̣Kͨ^ƿصCֲÿ˵ă˼S֮СŒϣOxһN׻ġڽ̡1 ԽסAϵę˥΢ڽ̳ݡָˇd͆\֮ᣬWނyu߽⣬ڽʧȥ֪R͸֧Σݵķ⽨ҲɞƶȺ̓rֵҪ˜ʣׇ҄tɞµΨһoߡ2ڽ^Dׇҵx^֮ᣬ̙Ҳ͑׃鼯cһćҙ


OxĸclKЇǰK“ȇ̽ӑOwƵ͑׃^cD͵Ŀ·Ҳǡĸl낀oĸǘOwƽYµĿҪֹĸݣֻ뷴˼OwƵı|KeO̽߳O ֮ · @ Snj ĸüo


 


O x B


1.Oxx


Ox(totalitarianism)Ҳg顸ȫxָһȫȫwMȫƵwʽW߿˹،˾ʵĶxژOxw
JκƣKMƹ˽ÿһ档3





1 Ҋ A. James Gregor, Totalitarianism and Political Religion: An Intellectual History, Stanford
University Press (2012).
2 J.L. Talmon, The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy, New York: Praeger (1960), pp. 1-3.
3 Conquest, Robert. Ref lections on a Ravaged Century. W.W. Norton & Co. (1999), p. 74.





һfOҴ_љõO£ȫΡĻȷ涼ǘOı|HϹ˶£ʲN͹ʲNҵҙoOޣҪʲN͹ʲNҪNܾNܣwһΡltZMڇҙǰ͂˛]κεֿ䶦ʢrڣOwƲHסÿһwЄӣҲЧÿһ˼S`ꡣ


·һıOxһNҙ迹B迹㣬oF@ȻһNOΠB··ģOŰMПo裬Ȼo޴yĸһϵО鵜Kҵ\ӾǘOwƵıȻYŒϣOwƲHHə·þ޴ćҡl늙CÿһwMг늡ϴX@ЩwұoıܣǵƘO޺Լġ迹FڅsɷeOoOࡢӽū۵ġ늳ء㮔Oҵġl늙Cڅ춿ݽߣÿһ늳ءпmOOҵı|ö·ĹFXļw·ҙ͇˼Spض·ֻҪһ񱣳ѵĪ˼njOyεĪ{ҾͲ܌Fȫę迹ؓ迹


OxmȻһNO˵ĬFF󣬅sƾõĚvʷYԴŒϣĶxϿ^yһٶOxƇҙđ˼SʮŰlչġŴ̓oo飬Nҙ޶һmȵĹȣǛ]ʲN܉ֹһ̨Ko޶ȵؔUҙӢs֮ԱȺˡ¡CɺʹÇF֮gŒϵ⣬@NBڶDzڵġϵ˹Fеġ^x(absolutist)ң߽yߵęJߟoϡ]߅硢Ƶġټxȫ܇ԵRΑBԼһȫλƺʹҙďhN^xҲǘOҡֻ^Ŵț]аlhCƣҲ]hlչξVIߣřCЧஔޣҙҲܵN‚͑TƼsol]ǷOĵز


FhdOxΗlmȻh1830ׄe]ИOxOxİlܐдW޴ꑷ˹RΑBγɣKʒlĐӽclչѴ1923꣬īYQOxnjһ|;λwһЇУ֮һoУһзćҡ4


ʩ1927꡶εĸһУϵyUˡȫ܇ҡ5 Ȼ1917꣬KSѽ_ʼ@Nˣֻ^RxrՓ箔TK]VdȤȵ˹S𔡶硢|M֮ᣬOx@ҲK“ʽaࡣmȻһOһJ顸OҡߌHϷͬı|硣


ڡOcwһУW߸Ͳ˹OxY磺ȫRΑBͨɪIĆһhʹܾ͇ұșCƵĿևwƣ܊꠵ĉŔ࣬ͨӍֶεĉŔ࣬Լͨ^ӋָͿơ6 Q֮ȫ܇xϵĘOxֻһÁָQһϵƶcĻҪصı̖һ֮ȫxӻȽһ׳ZFĿ˵RΑBԼһΨһ_ԌFZ鼺εhN綼@ɂ}֮ȻYضBµľSֶΡ
2.Oc


Ox(authoritarian)yεĵǷOKһxƴஔ|ą^eһxϵyΌƣKȫUI@ҪF춪߻hٿxeKՓc„ɡȻΪaЧδ؇IƩȫһ͇˽IIaNΨHȹPSһxϵyΛ]ИOxRΑBKԇDȫƽȻһɶȡңЈƤZ֮߷eOеĽ܌W


J飬һwƲ߂OwƵ@磺һǘOxRΑBֵܾ֧hǘOҌIĉŔơȻҲżܾ죬ᘌɵһ㾯챩DzԒ£춮ցKһ׿ƇRΑBԼĽyκϷԁKRΑB֮ϣҲһxġ˼뷸ҎģlܾSֽyεĹߣֻѴi춌yΘֱ{ķI䡣ŒϣhKŔࡸ_򡸂ԒZͨShŒڡ





4 Everything within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the stateҊ Stanley G. Payne, Fascism: Comparison and Definition, University of Wisconsin Press (1980), p. 73.
5 Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political , University of Chicago Press (1996), p. 22.
6 Carl Friedrich and Z. K. Brzezinski, Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy (2nd Ed.), Praeger (1967)





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mȻuOxʂKҶOxOͨ߂OxĻǾǽ^(absolutist monarchy)
@Ѹ٬F׮aƩ18oڵĶ_˹˵ôڶ̕rgȽˬF܊ꠡIպͽƶȡ@ЩFɾֻͨ^I^пܣݾòQvʷM̰l]QãFɞ_˹^xĜYԴ7
ĚvʷYԴf^xǏĽ뼯_ʼԛQյȽcںϡ̶cΙCW·뻯򡢳O܊꠺ԻSoıزٹߵ磬Ҫͨ^RΑB_һԭt8
Ȼ˵ôǽ^xĬF棬Ҳ_ƣҪ뼯·ͨ^϶µĸĸFF_ЕrҲQ顸ҡͨζPS͹ȫλcA춇ҬFԣ_һNvʷMw|ֻǽ^xķ档


18oǰ25꣬˵ôѻɽ^ƶȘǶ_˹Ļһ̶Fy@һcϺ ¡rӢR^˿һδ˱˵öK߂I|Գʹ^xęȻ_˹Y߀ǺӢб|ͬFKδγһԱȾ׌ιͬwһݾ_˹FKһɼsď1730꣬fZŮʈһȺFŮʱIãʧ
225գ800FYķ֌mxՈՈŮʽÿFһĴhCDZ鲼ʌmlʿ͹نTR•ߺҪܾáһxՈҪؚwãȄt˺˼ʿՈmȻs̷޵FҪ𲽵õ˝M㣬@һо]ŮʵļಽüʿߘԺķU@CҕһƵĽ^yΡ9


һf^xӰǸٹ̵ġ_˹1917ġ¸ƷɳʽyΣRr͇_xKʂƶȻwF˽^Ӱ푡ˏyƣyɳƣнɢhȽ^ڷ؟τtлࡣʂ12_ʼ\У ǏRręDƙC߀]Ͱl˱֪ġʮ¸10 ɴMһǰĘOx\ӡ





7 Ҋ Andrey N. Medushevsky, Russian Constitutionalism: Historical and Contemporary Development, Routledge (2006), pp. 61-139.
8 Ibid., pp. 61-63.
9 Ibid., pp. 72-73.
10 Ibid., pp. 126-128





O x l


һN迹ĘOˠBOxĽҪMһϵclȣOwƟoһǿ\Zxeġ1917Ķ_˹1932ĵ‡񱊌OࡸoAäĿ֧֘OwҲδ_wҪij^딵֧֣ʲSc{K߀׃̨֮ᣬOhһ߅ڇȌЇһhhȄtͨ^YIĂ˳ݡΣOwͨ^CMϵyϴX_ˡһxһhһI䡹RΑByΡᣬͨ^ȫλZ˼롢Փ ɣ OwƌF˂w춇ҵȫ һȥ»ćȺwKֲyTȺåfͬ춨A
1.RΑB
RΑBǘOx^eһyεĸIҲǘOyhһyθ얹̵ԭһxyȱȺAٔyֻهľ챩֮£O܉ɹFȫϴX׌^\ŷһNKJɈhIĻN@ӵȻǸ߶ȈFYġyȫԡoΡòÇұ԰lȺκήh


RΑBǘOҵı؂ҪأHOȫܡĶxζy˼ҪFȫܽyΣһз•Ȼ@ǷԵġ˵Բһͬ⣬DZ˴˲ͬ⣻Ǵ󹫟o˽˽춸˵桢ݡƫۡҊȻ͟oڵġoД࣬ÿ˵ҊǪصģ]Ѓɂ˕І}ϒȡȫͬijЩ˸ٹ̣oֹqՓҲ܏ϡǘOyǡǡҪһN_һĿˡһϷhI䣬KҪȫolܡ@ҲfOyβfķʽaֻͨ^ܽǘ_ȡxΣ̨ϵy悉ɡݚ


һyȣOyߘOҕRΑBϷԣ@Ⱥֵ֧ĻAOxRΑB֮ԵԴȡýyελǺlͳLֲ_ġŒϣRΑBñвĂڣǷltȡQضʮι̵Ҳ˼SOˡeֹ֮ˣwSvĴڣhĮhܳɞ߂đBͳДȻƇҎ׺oؚćҡȱΙ]ЙC呟BҹĽ򞣬˼SO了ɣȱڌ`beεęC؄epIĞаZKJ䲻ƵġýԒfǡX؄e࣬߀؄eⱻϴXՠ1945ġ_䔳ָġ_Ȼ෴Oһ˼Ϣ߶Ȇһķ]˼AJvʷa׃ĂĿǰMK܉՚vʷǰMҎɡ11


mȻKwИOxĻеĘOwбĻy˼YԴڞаʽĵcΌxyУҵOxRΑBĻ򡣵Œxһ㶼OijꂥĿˣKJΩһ_˼̗lNһжNJаƧȻֹҵʹֻǽֹкУҪI塸¡ֹơɴ˿Ҋywѽ˘Oxĵ»ڂćǰ˲ɱСġ˽СȻʲNxС˵ĹҲܵ|ԼsoՓΡ߀˼ϣyЇ˵Ĺƶஔģֻ^҂팦ʿО_aһs춹ϵyܿޡͨc㡢rI֧Ĺؔԭ򣬇ҙC׃һľޟoԣOxĻһֱe


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11 Karl R. Popper, Open Society and Its Enemies, Princeton University Press (2013), pp. 83-114, 283-320.





@ǞʲNOx̺һoՓyćҸ׳ɹ̺һ龫|ɷNѽͬһNգoՓ@ӵ]еֶRҿRΑBĪgڪڽ̻MNɘOyyԿ˷ϵKoՓLJh߀ǹahЇĘOxhֻ҂֮ܵпܡfhyijN̶ه˵طlΣN@ζһh˾ޡͬӣ‡{cx˹c̕һNPS@NPSĴڱf{ⷨ˹ĘOyȻLJġֻڽI֮⣬˹RΑBž춽yελ֮£ڟoՓAϵĹaxtԡMһţص״ͨ׺ɂKκһK


oՓڟoՓ߀Ǻڽׅfķ˹ңOxRΑBһMɲ֣֮ǡһxһhһI䡹һǞа롣Ox̓sģOdͬĞа롣ϘO֮·һ㶼һĚvʷMҶλN塢ѪyăԽУγɏҷoՓЇfƬԁıӰ߀ǵ‡һ֮ĸrOУKO󼤰lͳORΑBԇҰlչdƽȞ̖KPһȫS̹팍F@ЩĿ˵ĕr򣬺ܶ˱pȦס


hģÈhOҵĬFxQĿ˲hԳֱһhꠡĎIŒF롣OxՓϰѡ죬ǂֻһFвڵķһصFOһŰьڵƽծo֪ 韩ΣUҪ౻ϴXȺåˣmȻ\ӡ҂yĻMRx½̗lsھӢxA^֮oyٔӡI١СˡNaxĂֻпoaA h ꠡI A F


I䂀˳ݡȻ@hMRΑBhꠣɶ˼ҺμҁI OxȲShҲ܌hֻһ汾ҲֻһOx{˼Ҋĸ߶Ƚyһ˺֮gȻl磻ڰlr£Ҋ횷ؽyһһ˵
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fOxRΑB̓ġһԒڬFҲģӚeԲܾSָ֡OxĪ֮̎e׃ɬFOIһ؞_hܳJe`Ȼdzˣʰ˚vʷȻҎɣKA׃ɬFƩÇұ紹AOx֮ԳMeԣŒȡQ춾Œߵھ•rǵһԭtڲʲSУһһFص\Ļ300塹Ӣ֡ᣬȺԼڽ@ҊԼ۾Ͷ䣬ֻԼ䮔ȺڟoҿɚwĴӱܬFң䲻ŒżȻԺͲ⡣Oxṩһǰһµeԣͨ^ʹʧȥFȺеڣM˼SҪOxֻڳRʧЧĵطܴ賣R12
2
ҪSևҌ˵ȫλOx횝MһlǾˌȫ܇ҵĽ^ģK^ƶϱC@N^ġ@˵ԲͬͷģDzͬͲġ˵桢^cͬDzĵĄǑⲿ{׌˵Ŀ֑_󣬘OwһҪÿһ˄xһě]κε֓ĂwҌÿһˁf˶ijNصⲿƿأֻҪԼԲ Ԓ͕{Լ@ӣÿһoԮĿɑzxćҙCǰ𾤾


ȻOx߾Kǿֲ·ϴX·@ǘOyβͬͨƵ硣һ㌣أڷIJO҄tͽCĘOyα׌ķڷһN˼bȫwĴX׌ÿһ˶Đ\ؽһhIolI䣬ǮȻĠBڮhߣֻǘOٔԺΏw֮׌ʣµĽ^ԹԽȺI@NBښvʷҲ^Ʃ1930‡xVؚgӭ{̨ĸ찲TǘϽҊӵÜIMļtlָһմȾϘOxأyΰKI֢˹ϣջëɖ|֮ԳɹwYȺ֧֡





12 hȡmأOxԴJAg“ 2008 棬 10 ¡





wYףOxRΑB֮܉ɹܝMOɆһY@ԭ}sK]һȻǷƐ^һv]Ъ˼STԣur̎}s„һۺܟ˵顣RΑBĹ춺ǷД࣬ʡ˂ճ„յurɱOxRΑBOӋ O ɿ Ȼ T 񡹺 ˡ M c cаIA͡ظҡܝMڿ󱊵ļĺ̓sģҲNճZTД׌ȫȫuֵ֑\ӡȻظҡǡˡN򵹁K̤һb_׌䡸÷òo@Щˡκ˾qoCһOˣOxRΑBҪࡸ񡹣uĵ¿ģ픶YĤݡOԒZurwǸ߶ȆξSģֻСˡcˡˡʮ⡢NĐħˡtʮȫʮĵʹ@ʹȻǘOI䱾ˣǼȫһġߴȫǣëɖ|Ǹҡ μҡԼңҲ܌Wҡ ČWҡҡ @ңκ˵ԊñĸƯҲκΕҵ֌ñĸݣĂԺ܌Wҵ˼ܳԽġìՓ `ՓԒһһf䡣fһȫĘOң˶׃һˡÿһ涼QˣÿһˌWͳݵİӡӣƩhҲУĴڃrֵKԼΡWëɖ|˼롹njWģĿģuǞ˸õء񡹣@ĿģֻҲֻһ


ژOxRΑBܵձoĶʢrڣOI԰lһһܵġ˼졹\ӣSRΑByΣ@NBһֱmȥһ@ӵIwȺͽyF˅w\ӾͲЧ˲ǰװV˼|ɕܿ측F•⵽P͉ƣÿһΏĬyʧH춮˵ĔUɢ@rϴXѽyԞ^͑׃ֲ·ˡ


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13 J.L. Talmon, The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy, New York: Praeger (1960), pp. 1-3


14 ΃݅ءOxԴ 10 ¡


15 AӰL\ӵāȥ}ĴW 2000 棬ڶ ¡





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